What are case-control studies and why are they important?
- A case-control study is a type of observational study. Observational studies do not involve any intervention or action to change the course of the illness.
- Case-control studies are designed to understand if a certain exposure (for example tobacco) is associated with developing a disease or condition (such as lung cancer).
- Study participants are selected based on whether they have the disease or condition of interest. If they do have the disease or condition, they are called cases. If they do not have the disease or condition, they are called controls.
Helpful Links, Videos and Online Courses
- A Practical Overview of Case-Control Studies in Clinical Practice
- A guide for understanding the general overview of case-control studies.
- Epidemiology in Practice: Case-Control Studies
- Helps in understanding the brief introduction of the case-control study and also about investigating risk factors and sampling.
- Observational Research Methods: Cohort, Cross-sectional, and Case-control Studies
- A comprehensive guide for understanding advantages and disadvantages, and overcoming sampling bias in these study designs.
- “Case-Control Study” in 10 Minutes
- Gives a brief overview of case-control study designs with an example.
- Case-Control Studies: A Brief Overview
- A guide in understanding general design principles of case-control studies, when case-control designs are more useful than cohort studies, and strengths and weakness of case-control studies.
- Case-Control Study – Intro
- A brief overview of case-control study designs.
- Menya, D., Oduor, M., Kigen, N., Maina, S. K., Some, F., Kibosia, C., Chumba, D., Mugor, F. A., Carel, R. S., Middleton, D. R. S., Abebi-Ardekani, B., Schüz, J. & Cormack, V. A. (2018). Cancer epidemiology fieldwork in a resource-limited setting: Experience from the western Kenya ESCCAPE esophageal cancer case-control pilot study. Cancer Epidemiology, 57, 45–52.
- Landy, R., Sasieni, P. D., Mathews, C., Wiggins, C. L., Robertson, M., McDonald, Y. J., Goldberg, D. W., Scarinci, I. C., Cuzick, J. & Wheeler, C. M. for the New Mexico HPV Pap Registry Steering Committee. (2020). Impact of screening on cervical cancer incidence: A population-based case-control study in the United States. International Journal of Cancer, 147(3), 887–896.